May 17, · Union Army. Union Army. Although the United States had a regular army of 16, career soldiers when the Civil War began, throughout the conflict it placed chief reliance on an ad hoc force of U.S. Volunteers, the Union army. On 15 April , President Abraham Lincoln summoned 75, militia to serve for three months. Union Army summary: The Union Army (aka the Federal Army, or Northern Army) was the army that fought for the Union (or North) during the the American Civil War. Actually, it was comprised of several armies, to cover the many departments (geographic regions) in which the war was fought. Union armies were named for primary bodies of water within their department; hence, the Army of the .
American Indian Wars. Appomattox Court House. Also known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States as a working, viable republic. The Union Army was made up of the permanent regular army of the United Statesbut further fortified, augmented, and strengthened by the many temporary units of dedicated volunteers as well as including those who were drafted in to service as conscripts.
Army consisted of ten regiments of infantryfour of artillerytwo of cavalrytwo of dragoonsand three of mounted infantry. The regiments were scattered widely. Of the companies in the army, occupied 79 isolated posts in the Westand the remaining 18 manned garrisons east of the Mississippi Rivermostly along the Canada—United States border and on the Atlantic coast. There were only 16, men in the U. Army, including 1, commissioned officers.
GrantWilliam Tecumseh Shermanand Braxton Braggreturned to service at the outbreak of the war. This group's loyalties were far more evenly divided, with 92 donning Confederate gray and putting on the blue of the United States Army. With the Southern slave states declaring secession from the United States, and with this drastic shortage of men in the army, President Abraham Lincoln called on the states to raise a force of 75, men for three months to put down this subversive insurrection.
Lincoln's call forced the border states to choose sides, and four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. It turned out that the war itself proved to be much longer and far more extensive in scope and scale than anyone on either side, Union North or Confederate South, expected or even imagined at the outset on the date of July 22, That was the day that Congress initially approved and authorized subsidy to allow and support a volunteer army of up tomen to the cause.
The call for volunteers initially was easily met by patriotic Northerners, abolitionistsand even immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals. Over 10, German Americans in New York and Pennsylvania immediately responded to Lincoln's call, along with What are the presidential primaries and caucuses French Americanswho were also quick to volunteer.
As more men were needed, however, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to.
Many Southern Unionists would also fight for the Union Army. An estimatedwhite soldiers from states within the Confederacy served in Union Army units. It is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the large percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army.
At the start of the war, there were graduates of the U. Military Academy on the active list; of these, resigned or were dismissed, and of those became Confederate officers. Of the approximately West Point graduates who were then civilians, returned to the United States Army and what type of star is sadr to the Confederate.
Therefore, the ratio of U. Army to Confederate professional officers was to Leewho had initially been offered the assignment as commander of a field army to suppress the rebellion. Lee disapproved of secession, but refused to bear arms against his native state, Virginiaand resigned to accept the position as commander of Virginian C.
He eventually became the commander of the Confederate army. The South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institutebut they produced fewer officers. Though officers were able to resign, enlisted soldiers did not have this right.
As they usually had to either desert or wait until their enlistment term was over in order to join the Confederate States Army; their total number how to enjoy a cruise unknown. The Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were generally organized geographically.
Each of these armies was usually commanded by a major general. Typically, the Department or District commander also had field command of the army of the same name, but some conflicts within the ranks occurred when this was not true, particularly when an army crossed a geographic boundary.
The regular armythe permanent United States Army, was intermixed into various formations of the Union Army, forming a cadre of experienced and skilled troops. They were regarded by many as elite troops and often held in reserve during battles in case of emergencies.
Rough unit sizes for Union combat units during the war: . Soldiers were organized by military specialty.
The combat arms included infantrycavalryartilleryand other such smaller organizations such as the United States Marine Corps, which, at some times, was detached from its navy how to apply for dual citizenship in usa for land-based operations.
The Signal Corps was created and deployed for the first time, through the leadership of Albert J. Below major units like armies, soldiers were organized mainly into regiments, the main fighting unit with which a soldier would march and be deployed, commanded by a colonellieutenant colonelor possibly a major. According to William J. Hardee 's "Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics"the primary tactics for riflemen and light infantry in use immediately prior and during the war, there would typically be, in each regiment, ten companieseach commanded by a captainand deployed according to the ranks of captains.
Some units only had between four and eight companies and were generally known as battalions. Regiments were usually grouped into brigades under the command of a brigadier general. However, brigades were changed easily as the situation demanded; under the regimental system the regiment was the main permanent grouping.
Brigades were usually formed once regiments reached the battlefield, according to where the regiment might be deployed, and alongside which other regiments. Stantonwith the help of an unofficial "War Board" that was established on March 17, The board consisted of Ethan A.
How to repair a broken tent poleJoseph G. TottenJames W. Ripleyand Joseph P. Scott was an elderly veteran of the War of and the Mexican—American War and could not perform his duties effectively. His successor, Maj. McClellan, built and trained the massive Union Army of the Potomacthe how to make a 12 month picture banner fighting force in the Eastern Theater.
Although he was popular among the soldiers, McClellan was relieved from his position as general-in-chief because of his overcautious strategy and his contentious relationship with his commander-in-chiefPresident Lincoln. His replacement, Major General Henry W. Halleckhad a successful record in the Western Theater but was more of an administrator than a strategic planner and commander. Ulysses S. Grant was the final commander of the Union Army. He was famous for his victories in the West when he was appointed lieutenant general and general-in-chief of the Union Army in March Grant supervised the Army of the Potomac which was formally led by his subordinate, Maj.
George G. Meade in delivering the final blows to the Confederacy by engaging Confederate forces in many fierce battles in Virginia, the What happens when you stimulate the prostate Campaignconducting a war of attrition that the larger Union Army was able to survive better than its opponent.
Grant laid siege to Lee's army at Petersburg, Virginiaand eventually captured Richmondthe capital of the Confederacy. He developed the strategy of coordinated simultaneous thrusts against wide portions of the Confederacy, most importantly the Georgia and Carolinas Campaigns of What was the union army Tecumseh Sherman and the Shenandoah Valley campaign of Philip Sheridan. These campaigns were characterized by another strategic notion of Grant's-better known as total war —denying the enemy access to resources needed to continue the war by widespread destruction of its factories and farms along the paths of the invading Union armies.
Grant had critics who complained about the high numbers of casualties that the Union Army suffered while he was in charge, but Lincoln would not replace Grant, because, in Lincoln's words: "I cannot spare this man. He fights. Others, of lesser competence, included Benjamin F. The decisive victories by Grant and Sherman resulted in the surrender of the major Confederate armies. The first and most significant was on April 9,when Robert E. Although there were other Confederate armies that surrendered in the following weeks, such as Joseph E.
Johnston 's in North Carolinathis date was nevertheless symbolic of the end of the bloodiest war in American history, the end of the Confederate States of America, and the beginning of the what is fascia on a roof process of Reconstruction. McPherson states that Union soldiers fought to preserve the United States, as well as to end slavery, stating that:.
While restoration of the Union was the main goal for which they fought, they became convinced that this goal was unattainable without striking against slavery. McPherson states that witnessing the slave system of the Confederacy first-hand also strengthened the anti-slavery views of Union soldiers,  who were appalled by its brutality.
He stated that "I thought I had hated slavery as much as possible before I came here, but here, where I can see some of its workings, I am more than ever convinced of the cruelty and inhumanity of the system. The Union Army was composed of many different ethnic groups, including large numbers of immigrants. Aboutenlistments were by men born in one of the German states although this is somewhat speculative since anyone serving from a German family tended to be identified as German regardless of where they were actually born [ citation needed ].
Although some soldiers came from as far away as Malta, Italy, India, and Russia, most of the remaining foreign-born soldiers came from Great Britain and Canada. But for the most part, the foreign-born soldiers were scattered as individuals throughout units. Some Confederate propaganda condemned foreign-born soldiers in the Union Army, likening them to the hated Hessians of the American Revolution. Various organizational and administrative issues arose during the war, which had a major effect on subsequent military procedures.
The inclusion of what brings your cholesterol down people as combat soldiers became a major issue. Eventually, it was realized, especially after the valiant effort of the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry in the Battle of Fort Wagnerthat black people were fully able to serve as competent and reliable soldiers. This was partly due to the efforts of Robert Smallswho, while still a slave, won fame by defecting from the Confederacy and bringing a Confederate transport ship which he was piloting.
He later met with Edwin StantonSecretary of War, to argue for including blacks in combat units. This led to the formation of the first combat unit for black soldiers, the 1st South Carolina Volunteers.
Regiments for black soldiers were eventually referred to as United States Colored Troops. Black Soldiers were paid less than white Soldiers until late in the war and were, in general, treated harshly. Battlefield supplies were a major problem. They were greatly improved by new techniques in preserving food and other perishables, and in transport by railroad.
General Montgomery C. Meigs was one of the most important Union Army leaders in this field. The Civil War drove many innovations in military tactics. Hardee published the first revised infantry tactics for use with modern rifles in However, even these tactics proved ineffective in combat, as it involved massed volley fire, in which entire units primarily regiments would fire simultaneously.
Ethnic Groups in the Union Army
Other articles where Union Army is discussed: Remembering the American Civil War: gathering of more than 50, Union and Confederate veterans at the end of June and early July , the anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, in that small Pennsylvania town. They congregated in tents at the “Great Camp,” listened to speeches, and walked the battlefield together. Oct 30, · The Union Army Traditionally, there were three types of military service in the United States. There was the regular army, but it was not the principal fighting force in the Civil War. The second army was the militia, like in the South, because it went as far back as the colonial days rooted in the English militia system. 18 rows · Size of the Union and Confederate Armies. There is no accurate means of determining just .
Altogether, it included 20 free states and 5 border states. The Union was dedicated to the defeat and termination of the Confederate States of America , informally called "the Confederacy" or " the South ". The Union Army was a new formation comprising mostly state units, together with units from the regular U.
The Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, and Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them,  especially Maryland , which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D.
The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war. The Northeast and Midwest provided soldiers, food, horses, financial support, and training camps. Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most Northern states had Republican governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion, particularly that that arose in — They lost ground in , especially in Ohio.
In , the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers  and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against Democratic candidate George B. The war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare ravaged the countryside.
Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an entirely new national banking system. The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers' wives, widows, and orphans, and for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after many volunteered in order to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states and localities.
Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities, especially in parts of New York City, with its massive anti-draft riots of July and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. The Union United States of America never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained entirely a part of the United States of America.
In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which officially recognized the Confederate government. The subsequent Constitution of was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of "We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union Even before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, and a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America.
Using the term "Union" to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the pre-existing political entity. Confederates generally saw the Union as being opposed to slavery, occasionally referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U.
Navy as the "Abolition fleet" and the U. Army as the "Abolition forces". Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area the Northeast , and more advanced commercial, transportation and financial systems than the rural South.
Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, and to protect railroads and other vital points.
The Union's great advantages in population and industry would prove to be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union a long while to fully mobilize these resources. The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian, Allan Nevins , says:. The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment Anger swept the land.
From every side came news of mass meetings, speeches, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures. McClintock states:. At the time, Northerners were right to wonder at the near unanimity that so quickly followed long months of bitterness and discord. It would not last throughout the protracted war to come—or even through the year—but in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism usually hidden by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena.
Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war ground on year after year, the spirit of American republicanism grew stronger and generated fears of corruption in high places.
Voters became afraid of power being centralized in Washington, extravagant spending, and war profiteering. Democratic candidates emphasized these fears. The candidates added that rapid modernization was putting too much political power in the hands of Eastern financiers and industrialists.
They warned that the abolition of slavery would bring a flood of freed blacks into the labor market of the North. Republicans responded with claims of defeatism. They indicted Copperheads for criminal conspiracies to free Confederate prisoners of war , and played on the spirit of nationalism and the growing hatred of the slave owners, as the guilty party in the war.
Historians have overwhelmingly praised the "political genius" of Abraham Lincoln's performance as president. This required that he master entirely new skills as a strategist and diplomat. He oversaw supplies, finances, manpower, the selection of generals, and the course of overall strategy. Working closely with state and local politicians, he rallied public opinion and at Gettysburg articulated a national mission that has defined America ever since.
Lincoln's charm and willingness to cooperate with political and personal enemies made Washington work much more smoothly than Richmond , the Confederate capital, and his wit smoothed many rough edges. Lincoln's cabinet proved much stronger and more efficient than Davis's, as Lincoln channeled personal rivalries into a competition for excellence rather than mutual destruction. Chase at the Treasury , and from Edwin Stanton at the War Department , Lincoln had a powerful cabinet of determined men.
Except for monitoring major appointments and decisions, Lincoln gave them free rein to end the Confederate rebellion. The Republican Congress passed many major laws that reshaped the nation's economy, financial system, tax system, land system, and higher education system.
Military and reconstruction issues were another matter. Lincoln, as the leader of the moderate and conservative factions of the Republican Party, often crossed swords with the Radical Republicans , led by Stevens and Sumner.
It was a joint committee of both houses that was dominated by the Radical Republicans, who took a hard line against the Confederacy. During the 37th and 38th Congresses, the committee investigated every aspect of Union military operations, with special attention to finding commanders culpable for military defeats. It assumed an inevitable Union victory. Failure was perceived to indicate evil motivations or personal failures.
The committee distrusted graduates of the US Military Academy at West Point, since many of the academy's alumni were leaders of the enemy army. Members of the committee much preferred political generals with a satisfactory political record.
Some of the committee suggested that West-Pointers who engaged in strategic maneuver were cowardly or even disloyal. It ended up endorsing incompetent but politically correct generals.
The opposition came from Copperhead Democrats , who were strongest in the Midwest and wanted to allow Confederate secession. In the East, opposition to the war was strongest among Irish Catholics, but also included business interests connected to the South typified by August Belmont. The Democratic Party was deeply split.
In most Democrats supported the war. However, the party increasingly split down the middle between the moderates who supported the war effort, and the peace element, including Copperheads, who did not.
It scored major gains in the elections, and elected the moderate Horatio Seymour as governor of New York. They gained 28 seats in the House of Representatives but Republicans retained control of both the House and the Senate. The election for the Indiana legislature was especially hard-fought. Though the Democrats gained control of the legislature, they were unable to impede the war effort.
Republican Governor Oliver P. Morton was able to maintain control of the state's contribution to the war effort despite the Democrat majority. Men who had been Democrats before the war often abstained or voted Republican. As the federal draft laws tightened, there was serious unrest among Copperhead strongholds, such as the Irish in the Pennsylvania coal mining districts. The government needed the coal more than the draftees, so it ignored the largely non-violent draft dodging there.
Army firing grape shot down cobblestone city streets. The Democrats nominated George McClellan , a War Democrat for the presidential election but gave him an anti-war platform. In terms of Congress the opposition against the war was nearly powerless—as was the case in most states.
In Indiana and Illinois pro-war governors circumvented anti-war legislatures elected in For 30 years after the war the Democrats carried the burden of having opposed the martyred Lincoln, who was viewed by many as the salvation of the Union and the destroyer of slavery. The Copperheads were a large faction of northern Democrats who opposed the war, demanding an immediate peace settlement.
They said they wanted to restore "the Union as it was" that is, with the South and with slavery but they realized that the Confederacy would never voluntarily rejoin the U. Vallandigham , a Congressman and leader of the Democratic Party in Ohio. He was defeated in an intense election for governor in Republican prosecutors in the Midwest accused some Copperhead activists of treason in a series of trials in Copperheadism was a grassroots movement, strongest in the area just north of the Ohio River, as well as some urban ethnic wards.
Some historians have argued that it represented a traditionalistic element alarmed at the rapid modernization of society sponsored by the Republican Party. It looked back to Jacksonian Democracy for inspiration—with ideals that promoted an agrarian rather than industrialized concept of society.
Weber argues that the Copperheads damaged the Union war effort by fighting the draft, encouraging desertion and forming conspiracies. After the fall of Atlanta in September , military success seemed assured and Copperheadism collapsed.
Enthusiastic young men clamored to join the Union army in They came with family support for reasons of patriotism and excitement. Washington decided to keep the small regular army intact; it had only 16, men and was needed to guard the frontier. Its officers could, however, join the temporary new volunteer army that was formed, with expectations that their experience would lead to rapid promotions.
The problem with volunteering, however, was its serious lack of planning, leadership, and organization at the highest levels. Washington called on the states for troops, and every northern governor set about raising and equipping regiments, and sent the bills to the War Department. The men could elect the junior officers, while the governor appointed the senior officers, and Lincoln appointed the generals.
Typically, politicians used their local organizations to raise troops and were in line if healthy enough to become colonel.