What is Joint Cartilage and How Do You Heal Cartilage?
Jun 15, · What is cartilage made of? Cartilage a strong and smooth substance made up of “chondrocytes,” or specialized cartilage cells, that produce a matrix of collagen, proteoglycans (a special type of protein) and other non-collagenous proteins. Cartilage, connective tissue forming the mammalian embryonic skeleton prior to bone formation and persisting in parts of the human skeleton into adulthood. It is composed of a dense network of collagen fibers embedded in a gelatinous ground substance. .
Make an Appointment. We often hear about the importance of cartilage to protect our joint health. But whst exactly is cartilage, and how does it keep our joints healthy? Bryan Saltzman, MDbreaks down the basics is part one of Cartilage Cartilage is the main type of connective tissue seen throughout u body. It serves a variety of structural and functional purposes and exists in si types throughout our joints, bones, spine, lungs, ears and nose.
These materials help cartilage attract water and give what is cartilage made up of its shape and specific properties. There are three main types of cartilage: elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage.
These types vary in their make-up of the substances listed above. Elastic cartilage is present in the ear, nose and parts of the lungs. It is a cartilge flexible formulation of cartilage. Fibrocartilage is found in the menisci of the knee and the discs of the spine. It is far less flexible than elastic cartilage.
Hyaline cartilage is found at the ends of bones — lining the joints of the body — as well as the septum of the nose and part of the breathing tube. Hyaline, or articular, cartilage covers the ends of bones to create a low-friction environment and cushion at the joint surface. Cartilwge the cartilage begins to degenerate with age, or if it were to become damaged from an injury, the joint loses some of that protective cushion and exposes underlying bone ends.
This damage can lead to excess stress of those areas of bone that are ill-equipped to handle strong forces. Bryan M. June 15, Saltzman, MD Cartilagw often hear about the importance of cartilage to protect our joint health.
What is cartilage? What is cartilage made of? What are how to get rid of lice naturally with vinegar different types of cartilage? Elastic Cartilage Elastic cartilage is present in the ear, nose and parts of the lungs.
Fibrocartilage Fibrocartilage is found in the menisci of the knee and the discs of the spine. Hyaline Cartilage Hyaline cartilage is found at the ends of bones — lining the joints of the body — as well as the septum of the nose oc part of the breathing tube.
What happens when joint cartilage is damaged or unhealthy? Is wjat time to lace up the cleats? An Interview with Dr. Comments March 03, Very helpful information. Thank you. Reply From: OrthoCarolina. December 11, Very helpful information.
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Feb 04, · Cartilage is a type of connective tissue in the body. It is made of cells called chondrocytes embedded in a matrix, strengthened with fibers of collagen and sometimes elastin, depending on the type. There are three different types: hyaline . Jan 16, · Cartilage is a type of connective tissue found in the body. When an embryo is developing, cartilage is the precursor to bone. Some cartilage remains and is dispersed throughout the body Author: Rachel Nall, MSN, CRNA. Feb 10, · Elastic cartilage: It contains elastin fibers, making it more flexible than other types of cartilage. Elastic cartilage balances structure with flexibility, making it the perfect substance to help keep tubular structures This type of elastic cartilage is seen in the ears and larynx (voice box).
Hip and knee replacement surgery involve replacing the worn-out bone and cartilage lining your hip or knee joint with new implants that are composed of materials such as ceramic, metal and plastic. The materials used for hip and knee replacements are quite similar. Over the last two decades, the number of total hip replacements being performed each year has steadily increased in the United States. Accompanying this boom in surgery has been the release of information via the news, social media, documentaries and internet.
AAHKS has created this guide to provide all the information and research related to materials used in hip or knee replacement surgery. Standard total hip replacement implants are typically made up of approximately four individual components see Figure 1 below :. The femoral stem is the portion of the replacement that fits into your thigh bone.
In the modern era of hip replacements, cemented stems inserted with an epoxy bone cement are composed of cobalt-chromium metals. Cementless stems implants in which your bone grows into the metal are routinely made of titanium.
Both designs have had excellent long-term results as part of total hip replacement systems. The acetabulum cup structure fits into your pelvis and is also made from various metals.
The majority of modern cups are made from titanium or tantalum metals. Both metals are well tolerated by human bone and serve as excellent surfaces for bony attachment. The femoral head ball fits on the end of the stem trunnion. This end of the stem is taper shaped to allow the ball to wedge into position and be held tightly in place with friction. The ball comes in varying diameters often related to the size of the cup that fits into the pelvis.
The ball can be made from different materials:. The acetabular liner fits into the cup and serves as your new cartilage. Early forms of the liner were subject to wear by making contact with the ball and were thought to last only about 10 years.
Modern day improvements have made liners last longer by either using alternative materials or strengthening the plastic. When it comes time for a total hip replacement, you should discuss with your surgeon the options and pros and cons of each material. Together you can make the best decision for your particular case. Many studies have shown hip implants can last beyond 15 years from the original surgery. Typically made from cobalt-chromium as this material is scratch resistant and safe for use in total knee replacements.
The majority of total knee femoral components are made out of cobalt-chromium with excellent long-term success rates. Titanium is often too soft scratches easily to be a femoral component in the knee, and ceramics have a much smaller role in procedures done in the United States. Made from either titanium or cobalt-chromium with excellent results for each. This portion of the replacement is meant to hold the plastic liner. Some tibial components are made of all plastic.
This essentially is your new cartilage and fills the space between the two metal pieces. If your surgeon elects to use this, the undersurface of the patella knee cap can be covered with a piece of a plastic. This is optional, and not all surgeons routinely use this implant. The success rate for total knee replacement is outstanding with modern implants being expected to last between years. Similar to hip replacement, total knee replacement has been amongst the most successful orthopaedic surgeries in restoring function and quality of life.
Total knee replacements have become incredibly popular in the last two decades rising at greater rates than hips nearly a ratio. The basic materials are the same for both hip and knee replacements, although ceramics are not routinely utilized in knee implant materials in the United States.
As we continue to pursue perfect hip and knee replacements, there are likely to be some designs and materials that perform better than others. The bulk materials used to make hip and knee replacements are quite similar and have not changed drastically in the last 30 years.
Reaction and complications directly related to the materials themselves, while possible, are not common as manufacturer guidelines and standards are strictly followed and monitored. AAHKS recommends discussing implant options with your surgeon to gain an understanding of the particular materials to be used in your surgery. Discuss with your surgeon the risks and benefits of different implants and materials to gain an understanding of the proposed procedure.
Developing a good relationship and level of trust with your surgeon is a key aspect of ensuring a successful outcome. In the end, your surgeon is looking out for your best interests, and as much as you trust an airline pilot and the flight plan they follow, you should have the same trust in your surgeon. Unlike an organ transplant, the risk of your body rejecting the artificial hip or knee parts is exceedingly rare. The materials used in the typical replacement surgery are well tolerated by the body and have a long track record of successful implantation.
How do I know if I am allergic to the implants? How do I know if I have developed metal poisoning from the replacement parts? Links to these pages or content used from the articles must be given proper citation to the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons. A total hip replacement may be recommended for patients who experience severe hip pain. In a total knee replacement surgery, the goal is to replace the damaged cartilage within the knee.
Direct Anterior Hip Replacement. Hip Dysplasia - DDH. Robotic Assisted Partial Knee Replacement. Sign up here for our monthly newsletter to get tips on keeping your joints healthy, new report notifications, and more. Facebook Twitter Yelp. What are Joint Replacements Made of?
Joint Replacement Materials. Total Hip Replacement Materials. Standard total hip replacement implants are typically made up of approximately four individual components see Figure 1 below : Stem —inserts into the femur or thigh bone Cup —inserts into the pelvic bone Ball —fits onto the end of the stem Liner —inserts into the cup—essentially becomes your new cartilage The Stem The femoral stem is the portion of the replacement that fits into your thigh bone.
Both titanium and cobalt-chromium implants are considered highly biocompatible—meaning they are generally well tolerated by the human body with low risk of adverse reaction. In fact, both materials have been shown to be highly effective in adhering to bone. The top end of the femoral stem called the trunnion is specially shaped to hold the new ball of the artificial joint. Regardless of the material that the ball is made out of, this is where the head and stem fit together.
The Cup The acetabulum cup structure fits into your pelvis and is also made from various metals. The metallic cups serve to hold the liner of the hip replacement, which essentially serves as a replacement for cartilage.
In rare cases, the plastic liner may be used without a metallic cup and is held in place using an epoxy bone cement. The Ball The femoral head ball fits on the end of the stem trunnion. The ball can be made from different materials: Ceramic —Many refer to this as a porcelain type material.
This is a very hard surface and is extremely resistant to scratching or other damage. Ceramic heads can be paired with either ceramic or plastic liners. Cobalt-chromium —For the better part of the last three decades, this has been the most common material used for the ball as it is relatively-scratch resistant and holds up well similar to ceramic described above. Cobalt-chromium heads can be paired with plastic or metal liners.
Due to some potential concerns for metal debris formation when cobalt-chromium heads are paired with metal liners recently brought to light, cobalt-chromium heads are now most commonly used with plastic liners instead of metal liners. The Liner The acetabular liner fits into the cup and serves as your new cartilage. Cobalt-chromium —Metal liners have fallen out of favor when used with metal balls over the last 10 years; however, newer options where a plastic ball is placed in a metal liner known as dual mobility have shown excellent short-term results in the United States and may be useful when utilized in specific patients.
Polyethylene —Plastic is by far the most common material used for hip replacement liners. This material has provided good to excellent results when paired with ceramic or cobalt-chromium balls. Recent advances in the manufacturing of polyethylene have significantly improved the wear rates of these plastic liners over the last years.
Figure 1. Total Knee Replacement Materials. Total knee replacements are made of 4 parts as well Figure 2 — TBD : Femur thigh —top part Tibia — shin bottom piece Liner —serves as your new cartilage Patella kneecap —this is an optional part of the surgery, and some physicians do not use this as part of the procedure.
The Femur Typically made from cobalt-chromium as this material is scratch resistant and safe for use in total knee replacements. The Tibia Made from either titanium or cobalt-chromium with excellent results for each.
The Polyethylene plastic liner This essentially is your new cartilage and fills the space between the two metal pieces. Figure 2. Long Term Outlook. Talk to Your Surgeon. Total Hip Replacement. Learn More. Total Knee Replacement. Services and Treatments. Hip Services. Knee Services. Shoulder Services. Arthritis Overview. Request an Appointment. Message: Hi Dr. Please get in touch with me. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.