100 years ago: 1921 in news, entertainment, American life, famous firsts, world affairs, more
We look back years to see what happened in , from famous firsts, inventions, births and other milestones. Mar 25, · years ago: Downtown Charlevoix hotel torched by owner That doesn’t begin to tell what had happened to the building, now the site of Oleson’s Plaza, to keep it empty for almost four.
The SS Eastland was a passenger ship based in Chicago and used for tours. On 24 Julythe ship rolled over what are the seven reading comprehension strategies its side while tied to a dock in the Chicago River. After the disaster, Eastland was salvaged and sold to the United States Navy. On 27 July of her inaugural season, the ship struck the laid up tugboat George W.
Gardner and sank her at her dock at the Lake Street Bridge, Chicago, Illinoisbut received only minor damage. On 14 Augustwhile on a cruise from Chicago to South Haven, Michigansix of the ship's firemen refused to stoke the fire for the ship's boiler.
They claimed that they had not received their potatoes for a meal. Firemen George Lippen and Benjamin Myers, who were not a part of the group of six, stoked the fires until the ship reached harbor. Shortly thereafter, Captain Pereue was replaced. Because the ship did not meet a targeted speed of 22 miles per hour during her inaugural season, and had a draft too deep for the Black River in South Haven, Michigan, where she was being loaded, the ship returned in September to Port Huron for modifications, including the addition of an air conditioning system and machinery adjustments to reduce draft.
Then, ato 5 Augustanother incident of listing occurred which resulted in the filing of complaints against the Chicago-South Haven Line which had purchased 191 ship earlier that year. In Junethe Eastland was sold to the St. Joseph, Michigan to Chicago, Illinois service. Many of the passengers on Eastland were Czech immigrants from Cicero; of the Czech passengers, perished.
The law required retrofitting of yeads complete set of lifeboats on Eastlandas on many other passenger vessels. Some argued that other Great Lakes ships would suffer from the same problem. Eastland was already so top-heavy that she had special restrictions concerning the number of passengers that could be carried.
Prior to that, during JuneEastland had again changed ownership, this time bought by the St. On the morning zgo 24 July, passengers began boarding Eastland on the south bank of the Chicago River between Clark and LaSalle Streets about am, and by am, the ship had reached her capacity of yers, passengers.
The ship was packed, with many passengers standing on the open upper decks, and began to list slightly to the port side away from the wharf. The crew attempted to stabilize the ship by admitting water into her ballast tanksbut to little avail. Sometime during the next 15 minutes, a number of passengers rushed to the port side, and at am, Eastland lurched sharply to port, and then rolled completely onto her port side, coming to rest on the river bottom, which was only 20 feet 6.
Many other passengers had already moved below decks on this relatively cool and damp morning to warm themselves before the departure. Consequently, hundreds of people were trapped inside by the water and the sudden rollover; some were crushed by heavy furniture, including pianos, bookcases, and tables.
Although the ship was only 20 feet 6. The bodies of the victims were taken to various temporary morgues established in the area for identification; by afternoon, the remaining unidentified bodies were consolidated in the Armory of the 2nd Regiment. One of the people who were scheduled to be on Eastland was year-old Ao Halasan American 1000 player, who was delayed leaving for the dock, and arrived after the ship had overturned.
His name was listed on the list of deceased in newspapers, but when fraternity brothers visited his home to send their condolences, he was revealed to be unharmed. Halas would go on to become coach and owner of the Chicago Bears and a founding member of the National Football League. His friend and future Bears executive Ralph Brizzolara and his brother were on the Eastland when she capsized, though they escaped through portholes.
The first known film footage taken of the recovery efforts was discovered and then released during early by a graduate student at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Marion Eichholz — the last known survivor of the capsizing ib died on 24 Novemberat the age of Writer Jack Woodford witnessed the disaster and gave a first-hand account to the Herald and Examinera Chicago newspaper. In his autobiography, Woodford writes:. And then movement caught my eye. I looked across the river.
As I watched in disoriented stupefaction a steamer large as an ocean liner slowly turned over on its side ij though it were a whale going to take a nap.
I didn't believe a huge steamer had done this before my eyes, lashed to a dock, in perfectly calm water, in excellent weather, with no explosion, no fire, nothing.
I thought I had gone crazy. Newspapers played a significant part in not only publicizing the Eastland disaster, but also creating the public memory of the catastrophe.
The newspapers' purpose, audience, and political and business associations influenced the newspapers to publish articles emphasizing who was to blame happejed why Eastland capsized.
Consequently, the articles influenced how the court cases proceeded, and contributed to a dispute between Western Electric Company and some of its workers regarding how the company responded to the catastrophe. Carl Sandburgthen known better as a journalist than a poet, wrote an angry account accusing regulators of ignoring safety issues and claimed that many of the workers were there on company orders for a staged picnic.
The Eastland disaster was incorporated into the series premiere of the Disney Channel original series Hears Weird. How to talk to kids about drugs and alcohol the wnat, teenaged paranormal enthusiast Fiona Phillips actress Cara DeLizia encounters the ghost of a young boy who drowned during the capsizing while exploring a nightclub near the Chicago Riverand attempts how to use ing in spanish learn why he has contacted her.
Its What happened 100 years ago in 1915 Angeles production, directed by Michael Matthews, and produced by Couerage Theater Company, premiered on 24 July — the th anniversary of the Eastland tragedy. A grand jury indicted the president and three other officers of the steamship company for manslaughterand the ship's captain and engineer for criminal carelessnessand found that the disaster was caused by "conditions of instability" caused by any how do you stop lag all of overloading of passengers, mishandling of water ballast, or the construction of the ship.
Federal extradition hearings were held to compel the six indicted men to come from Michigan to Illinois for trial. Defense counsel Clarence Darrow asked whether he had ever worried about the conversion of the ship into a passenger happemed with a capacity what happened 100 years ago in 1915 2, or more passengers.
Jenks replied, "I had no way of knowing the quantity of its business after it left our yards No, I did not worry about the Eastland. The court refused extradition, holding the evidence was too weak, with "barely a scintilla of proof" to establish probable cause to find the six guilty. The court reasoned that the four company officers were not aboard the ship, and that every act charged against the captain and engineer was done in the ordinary course of business, "more consistent with innocence than with guilt.
Cartoonist Bob Satterfield witnessed the capsizing from the Clark Street Bridgeand sketched it for his syndicate. Postcard of Eastland. Eastland in Michigan City Docks, pre disaster wit. P Pederson. She was converted to a gunboat, renamed Wilmette on 20 Februaryand commissioned on 20 Septemberwith Captain William B. Wells in command. It trained sailors and experienced normal upkeep and repairs until placed in ordinary at Chicago on 9 Julyretaining a man caretaker crew aboard.
On 29 Junehappehed gunboat was returned to full commission, with Captain Edward A. Anderson, the man who fired the first American torpedo of the conflict. For the remainder of her year career, the gunboat served as a training ship for naval reservists of the 9th, 10th, and 11th Naval Districts.
Ernie Pylethe famed World War II correspondent, was one of those trainees when yearw spent three weeks on the ship during late summer Given hull designation IX on 17 Februaryshe resumed training duty at Chicago on 30 Marchpreparing armed guard crews for duty manning the guns on armed merchantmen.
RooseveltAdmiral William D. LeahyJames F. On 9 Aprilshe was returned to full commission for a brief interval. Wilmette was decommissioned on 28 Novemberand her name was deleted from the Navy list on 19 December DuringWilmette was offered for sale.
Finding no takers, how to reset att uverse 31 Octobershe was sold to the Hyman Michaels Company for scrapping, which was completed in A marker commemorating the accident was dedicated on 4 June This marker was reported stolen on 26 Apriland a replacement marker was installed and rededicated on 24 July Plans exist for a permanent outdoor exhibit with the proposed name "At The River's Edge".
This exhibit would be located along the portion of the Chicago Riverwalk adjacent to the waters where the Eastland disaster occurred. The exhibit is planned to consist of six displays, each containing two unique panels which will serve to illustrate the tragedy through text and high-resolution images. Pulaski Road, Chicago. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Passenger ship that rolled over in Chicago in This article is about the ship. For other ehat, see Eastland disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Passengers being rescued from the hull of the Eastland by a tugboat. Eastland Memorial Yyears. Archived from the original on 24 March Retrieved 25 April The Wreck of the Steamer Lady Elgin.
Archived from the original on 27 July Retrieved 26 April Shipbuilding History. Archived from the original on 8 October Retrieved 26 June Builder's Data and History. Maritime Quest. Retrieved 10 May Washington: Government Printing Office. Retrieved 18 May — via Haithi Trust.
Jan 20, · years ago: in news, entertainment, American life, famous firsts, world affairs, more More than people are killed. The blast happened . In , million people lived in the United States, and more than half were under One century later, the population is more than million, but the share of people under age 25 has. But to Turks, what happened in was, at most, just one more messy piece of a very messy war that spelled the end of a once-powerful empire. They reject the conclusions of historians and the term genocide, saying there was no premeditation in the deaths, no systematic attempt to destroy a people.
The Ludlow Massacre was a massacre perpetrated by anti-striker militia during the Colorado Coalfield War. Approximately 21 people, including miners' wives and children, were killed.
John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Ludlow was the deadliest single incident during the Colorado Coalfield War and spurred a ten-day period of heightened violence throughout Colorado.
In retaliation for the massacre at Ludlow, bands of armed miners attacked dozens of anti-union establishments, destroying property and engaging in several skirmishes with the Colorado National Guard along a mile km front from Trinidad to Louisville. Historian Thomas G. Andrews has called it the "deadliest strike in the history of the United States. The Ludlow Massacre was a watershed moment in American labor relations. Socialist historian Howard Zinn described it as "the culminating act of perhaps the most violent struggle between corporate power and laboring men in American history".
The Ludlow townsite and the adjacent location of the tent colony, 18 miles 29 km northwest of Trinidad, Colorado , is now a ghost town. The massacre site is owned by the United Mine Workers of America, which erected a granite monument in memory of those who died that day. Areas of the Rocky Mountains have veins of coal close to the surface of the land, providing significant and relatively accessible reserves.
In these coal deposits caught the attention of William Jackson Palmer , then leading a survey team planning the route of the Kansas Pacific Railway. The rapid expansion of rail transport in the United States made coal a highly valued commodity, and it was rapidly commercialized. Colorado Fuel and Iron was the largest coal operator in the west and one of the nation's most powerful corporations, at one point employing 7, people and controlling 71, acres Mining was dangerous and difficult work.
Colliers in Colorado were constantly threatened by explosions, suffocation, and collapsing mine walls. In the death rate in Colorado's mines was 7.
Colorado has good mining laws and such that ought to afford protection to the miners as to safety in the mine if they were enforced, yet in this State the percentage of fatalities is larger than any other, showing there is undoubtedly something wrong in reference to the management of its coal mines.
Miners were generally paid according to tonnage of coal produced, while so-called "dead work", such as shoring up unstable roofs, was often unpaid. Colliers had little opportunity to air their grievances. Many resided in company towns , in which all land, real estate, and amenities were owned by the mine operator, and which were expressly designed to inculcate loyalty and squelch dissent. Company towns indeed brought tangible improvements to many colliers' lives, including larger houses, better medical care, and broader access to education.
Historian Philip S. Foner has described company towns as " feudal domain[s], with the company acting as lord and master. The 'law' consisted of the company rules. Curfews were imposed. Company guards—brutal thugs armed with machine guns and rifles loaded with soft-point bullets —would not admit any 'suspicious' stranger into the camp and would not permit any miner to leave. Frustrated by working conditions they found unsafe and unjust, colliers increasingly turned to unionism.
The Western Federation of Miners organized primarily hard-rock miners in the gold and silver camps during the s. Beginning in , the United Mine Workers of America began organizing coal miners in the western states, including southern Colorado. To break or prevent strikes, the coal companies hired strike breakers , mainly from Mexico and southern and eastern Europe.
Despite attempts to suppress union activity, the United Mine Workers of America secretly continued its unionization efforts in the years leading up to Eventually, the union presented a list of seven demands:. The major coal companies rejected the demands. The tents were built on wood platforms and furnished with cast-iron stoves on land the union had leased in preparation for a strike. When leasing the sites, the union had selected locations near the mouths of canyons that led to the coal camps in order to block any strikebreakers' traffic.
Baldwin—Felts had a reputation for aggressive strike breaking. Agents shone searchlights on the tent villages at night and fired bullets into the tents at random, occasionally killing and maiming people. They used an improvised armored car , mounted with a machine gun the union called the " Death Special ", to patrol the camp's perimeters. Confrontations between striking miners and working miners, whom the union called scabs, sometimes resulted in deaths. Frequent sniper attacks on the tent colonies drove the miners to dig pits beneath the tents to hide in.
Armed battles also occurred between mostly Greek strikers and sheriffs recently deputized to suppress the strike: this was the Colorado Coalfield War.
As strike-related violence mounted, Colorado governor Elias M. Ammons called in the Colorado National Guard on October At first, the Guard's appearance calmed the situation, but the Guard leaders' sympathies lay with company management. Guard Adjutant-General John Chase , who had served during the violent Cripple Creek strike 10 years earlier, imposed a harsh regime. On March 10, , a replacement worker's body was found on the railroad tracks near Forbes, Colorado.
The National Guard said the strikers had murdered the man. The attack was launched while the residents were attending a funeral of two infants who had died a few days earlier. Photographer Lou Dold witnessed the attack, and his images of the destruction often appear in accounts of the strike. The strikers persevered until the spring of By then, according to historian Anthony DeStefanis, the National Guard had largely broken the strike by helping the mine operators bring in non-union workers.
The state had also run out of money to maintain the Guard, and Ammons decided to recall them. He and the mining companies, fearing a breakdown in order, left one company of Guardsmen in southern Colorado. On the morning of April 20, the day after some in the tent colony celebrated Orthodox Easter, three Guardsmen appeared at the camp ordering the release of a man they claimed was being held against his will. While this meeting was progressing, two militias installed a machine gun on a ridge near the camp and took positions along a rail route about half a mile south of Ludlow.
Simultaneously, armed Greek miners began flanking to an arroyo. When two of the militias' dynamite explosions—detonated to draw support from the National Guard units at Berwind and Cedar Hill—alerted the Ludlow tent colony, the miners took up positions at the bottom of the hill.
When the militia opened fire, hundreds of miners and their families ran for cover. The fighting raged for the entire day.
The militia was reinforced by non-uniformed mine guards later in the afternoon. At dusk a passing freight train stopped on the tracks in front of the Guards' machine-gun placements, allowing many of the miners and their families to escape to an outcrop of hills to the east called the Black Hills. Tikas had remained in the camp the entire day and was still there when the fire started. He and two other men were captured by the militia.
Tikas and Lt. Karl Linderfelt , commander of one of two Guard companies, had confronted each other several times in the previous months. While two militiamen held Tikas, Linderfelt broke a rifle butt over his head. Tikas and the other two captured miners were later found shot dead. Tikas had been shot in the back. During the battle, four women and 11 children hid in a pit beneath one tent, where they were trapped when the tent above them was set on fire.
Two of the women and all the children suffocated. These deaths became a rallying cry for the United Mine Workers of America, who called the incident the Ludlow Massacre. Julia May Courtney reported different numbers in her contemporaneous article "Remember Ludlow! She said that, in addition to men who were killed, a total of 55 women and children had died in the massacre.
According to her account, the militia:. Some reports say a second machine gun was brought in to support the estimated Guardsmen who participated in the engagement, and that a Colorado and Southern train's operators purposely put their engine between a machine gun and the strikers as a shield against National Guard fire.
A board of Colorado military officers described the events as beginning with the killing of Tikas and other strikers in custody, with gunfire largely emanating from the southwestern corner of the Ludlow Colony. Guardsmen stationed on "Water Tank Hill"—the name for the machine gun position—fired into the camp.
The Guardsmen reported having seen women and children withdrawing the morning before the battle and said they thought the strikers would not have begun firing if they had women still with them. The board's official report commended the "truly heroic behavior" of Linderfelt, the guardsmen, and the militia during the battle and blamed the strikers for any civilian casualties during the engagement,  despite those killed being family members of the strikers.
In addition to the miners and their family members, three regular members of the National Guard and one other militiaman were reported killed in the day's fighting by contemporary accounts. Martin was fatally shot in the neck, presumably by strikers. They urged union members to get "all the arms and ammunition legally available".
Subsequently, the coal miners began a large-scale guerrilla war against the mine guards and facilities throughout Colorado's southern coalfields. In the town of Trinidad , the United Mine Workers of America openly and officially distributed arms and ammunition to strikers at union headquarters.
Hundreds of state militia reinforcements were rushed to the coalfields to regain control of the situation. The United Mine Workers of America finally ran out of money, and called off the strike on December 10, Of those present at Ludlow during the massacre, only John R. Lawson , leader of the strike, was convicted of murder, and the Colorado Supreme Court eventually overturned the conviction. A Episcopalian minister, Reverend John O. Ferris, pastored Trinity Church in Trinidad and another church in Aguilar.
He was one of the few pastors in Trinidad permitted to search and provide Christian burials to the deceased victims of the Ludlow Massacre. The Costa family, pictured before the Ludlow Massacre. Four members of this family were killed in the massacre, three by asphyxiation, fire, or both. The massacre sparked nationwide reproach for the Rockefellers, especially in New York, where protesters demonstrated outside of the Rockefeller building in New York City.
Protesters led by Ferrer Center anarchists Alexander Berkman and Carlo Tresca followed when Junior fled 30 miles 48 km upstate to the family estate near Tarrytown. In early July, a failed bomb plot on the Tarrytown estate ended with a dynamite explosion in East Harlem and three dead anarchists.