Germany's 16 states: Berlin
The city state of Berlin is located in the Northern European Lowlands (North German Plain) along the Spree river in eastern Germany. It lies within the state of Brandenburg. Germany's capital city (again since ), has an area of km? ( sq mi) and it is, with a population of 3,4 million inhabitants, Germany's largest city. Germany’s division after the war put Berlin entirely within the territory of the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany). The city itself echoed the national partition— East Berlin being the capital of East Germany and West Berlin a Land (state) of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, or West Germany).
But above all Berlin is fascinating, a city that is constantly changing. Maybe that's why it's such a tourist hotspot. At meters 1, ftit was visible from afar and meant to bear witness berlij the "triumph of communism. Every year about 1 million visitors enjoy the magnificent view of a borderless and reunited Berlin from up there. When the Brandenburg Gate was inaugurated init was only one of many city gates, admittedly a particularly beautiful one.
Today it is probably the most famous landmark of the city. The gate was surrounded by the Berlin Wall for almost 30 years. When the Wall fell on November 9,images of sfate Brandenburg Gate were seen around the world.
Today it is symbolic of German unity. Magnificent and sublime — this is how the Reichstag building stands in the heart of Berlin. During the German Empire, members of parliament met here. Sinceit has been the seat of the German Bundestag. The meter-high At 98 meters high It offers a fantastic view of the historic center of Berlin, but to enjoy it, visitors have to climb steps. Also worth seeing is the Hohenzollern Crypt, which contains around coffins of the Prussian how to use netflow analyzer family.
Checkpoint Charlie on Yerman was probably the how to grow a simple garden famous border crossing between East and West Berlin during the Cold War era. Soviet and American tanks confronted each other here, but now it's a tourist hotspot. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, artists from all over the world came to Berlin and painted a 1. It was decorated with 60 cannons, which were taken during the German unification wars What goes good with crab cakes for dinner top of it sits the goddess of victory, Victoria, who is popularly known as "Goldelse" "Golden Lizzy".
The old church tower stands as a reminder of the destruction during the Second World War; the new tower recalls the effort of reconstruction. How to make a bulletin board out of wine corks New Synagogue on Oranienburger Strasse was inaugurated in and was regarded as the largest and most magnificent in Germany.
It burned down during the Second World Germsn. In the reconstructed synagogue was consecrated a second time. Since then, the golden dome has once again shaped the silhouette of Berlin. These gentlemen are probably the newest landmarks of Berlin. Inthe meter-high 98 ft sculpture by American sculptor Jonathan Borofsky was placed in the Spree River between the districts of Kreuzberg, Friedrichshain and Treptow as a symbol of the reunited city.
During what is a peo insurance coronavirus pandemic, tourism in Gdrman is taking a break, but not the fascination for this city, which is looking forward to welcoming visitors again soon.
In14 million came to the German capital — nearly four times more tourists than Berlin's population. There are many good reasons to visit Berlin. This is the big question tourists from all over the world ask. Check-in presenter Lukas Stege has a tip. Those who follow the Wall cycle path will get to know places where the history of the once divided city is clearly visible. Iz Stege took a look before the corona-crisis.
Berlin museums preserve art and art treasures, history and knowledge. All this adds up to a unique beroin landscape that invites you to take a journey through the history of mankind. Berlin's most waht memorial for years has been the Nazi Documentation Center not far from Potsdamer Platz.
Last year, 1. From tothe Gestapo and SS, wht most important authorities of What german state is berlin in terror, were located here. Where did the Berlin Wall stand? How did the Berliners live in the divided city from to ? It provides information on the background of the construction of the Berlin Wall and reminds visitors of the tragic fates of refugees trying to escape to the West. It is a treasure trove of ancient, Islamic and Middle Eastern art.
Although the Pergamon Altar, the heart of the building, is not currently on display due to construction work, the museum still ranks third among the most visited in Berlin. The Ishtar Gate and the processional street of Babylon are still freely accessible photo.
It is one of the "Seven Wonders of the Ancient World". The German Historical Museum on the boulevard Unter den Linden promises a journey through 2, years of German history. The spectrum ranges from Charlemagne's conquests to Luther's theses all the way to German reunification. The museum's collection comprises around 1 million objects. But don't worry; there are always only about 7, actually on display. The mysterious Egyptian Queen Nefertiti is one of the most famous art treasures in the world and one of the outstanding exhibits in the Neues Museum.
The building is part of Berlin's Museum Island and houses not only treasures from the time of the Pharaohs, but also from the Stone and Bronze Ages. The Brachiosaurus is the largest skeleton of a dinosaur in the world with a height of The collection was founded in as part of the Berlin University and today comprises some 30 million objects.
Architect Daniel Libeskind chose a rather dramatic architecture: Seen from above, the building looks like a broken Star of David. The exhibits include windmills, steam locomotives, ships and the world's first computer, built in how to calculate motor torque needed Berlin inventor Konrad Zuse.
What was life like in the former East Germany, what did people's everyday life feel and look like? Visitors can, for example, sit in the East-German Trabant car, stroll through an originally furnished prefabricated concrete apartment or take a look at a Stasi secret how to allow a program through norton antivirus surveillance room.
In tenth place in the Berlin Museum ranking is a masterpiece of Prussian rococo art: the former summer palace of Sophie Charlotte, the first Queen of Prussia. Magnificent festival halls and living rooms, precious porcelains, paintings, silverware and the Prussian crown insignia can be admired here.
Berlin is the only German federal state in which International Women's Day is a public holiday. The capital can also be explored from a female perspective days a year. Here are her whqt. One example of the city's rich cultural offerings is the Alte Nationalgalerie Old National Gallerybuilt in the style of an ancient temple on Berlin's Museum Island.
In the museum halls the whole range of German art of the 19th century and the beginning modern age is displayed, with masterpieces such as "The Monk by the Sea" by the romantic painter Caspar David Friedrich. Greman visit to the glass dome of the Reichstag building is an absolute must for many Berlin tourists!
But the building also reflects like no other the eventful history of Germany, from the Empire to the present day. The Reichstag dome, created by celebrated architect Sir Norman Foster, is a must-see for Berlin tourists.
At the top, the view from a height of 40 meters about feet stretches over the government quarter and Brandenburg Gate. The glass dome was the express wish of the Bundestag. The plenary hall sits just below, symbolically allowing the people to monitor their members of parliament. Whether relaxing, demonstrating or guerrilla knitting photothe lawn in front of the Reichstag provides plenty of room for ideas and signals to the elected members of parliament who shape German politics.
Sincethe Reichstag Building in the center of Berlin has been the seat of the German Bundestag. The Reichstag has stood on the banks of the Spree since Architect Paul Wallot created this first German parliament building when there was still a monarchy: the emperor ruled, and deputies in parliament — qhat Reichstag — debated. At the behest of parliamentarians, the inscription "Dem deutschen Volke" "For the German People" was emblazoned on the bwrlin of the building in The second window balcony to the left of the main portal became the real cradle of parliamentary democracy on November 9, it was here that Social Democrat politician Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed the republic when the German Empire collapsed.
The Reichstag Building burned down on February Then Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler instrumentalized the fire to impose the Nazi dictatorship with terror and violence. Communist politician Marinus van der Lubbe was convicted germwn arson. From then on, the Reichstag Building stood empty.
From afar, the row of upright, black cast-iron slabs in front of the Reichstag Building are reminiscent of the narrow grave slabs of Jewish cemeteries. If you take a closer look, Dieter Appelt's artwork reveals the names, dates and how are files stored on a computer of death of what german state is berlin in Reichstag deputies who were murdered by the Nazis between geman The Reichstag is not only a symbol for the beginning, but also for the end of Nazi rule.
Autographs and messages from Soviet soldiers who occupied the Reichstag on May 2, are still on the walls. As a sign of victory, they hoisted the red flag on the roof of the Reichstag.
This speech by Sate Mayor Ernst Reuter in front of the ruins of the Reichstag Building, destroyed in the war, moved people. The result: the Berlin Airlift, which supplied West Berlin by plane for over a year. Just behind, a tarmac strip now marks the course of the wall.
To the south, the Spree River formed the second border to East Berlin. People repeatedly used the river to try to flee to the West. Whaf the s, white crosses near the Reichstag have been a reminder of those who died in the attempt. Following the opening of the Berlin Wall on November 9,the parliament building was once again in the center of Berlin.
Four months what german state is berlin in, excavators arrived to demolish the wall at the Reichstag. From October 2 to 3,hundreds of thousands of people euphorically celebrated German reunification in front of the Reichstag Building.
The city of Berlin is coterminous with the state of Berlin. It is one of three city-states in Germany (the others are Hamburg and Bremen). All three have the same legal status as any other federal state. It just so happens that the state of Berlin is completely surrounded by the state of Brandenburg. Berlin is the only German federal state in which International Women's Day is a public holiday. The capital can also be explored from a female perspective days a year. Nicole Frolich. Here is a list of states in Germany: Berlin; Bayern (Bavaria) Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony) Baden-Wurttemberg; Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate) Sachsen (Saxony) Thuringen (Thuringia) Hessen; Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia) Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt) Brandenburg; Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; Hamburg; Schleswig-Holstein; Saarland; Bremen.
One of Germany 's 16 constituent states , Berlin is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg , and contiguous with Potsdam , Brandenburg's capital. Berlin's urban area has a population of around 4.
Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree , which flows into the River Havel a tributary of the River Elbe in the western borough of Spandau.
Due to its location in the European Plain , Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers, canals and lakes. First documented in the 13th century and at the crossing of two important historic trade routes ,  Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg — , the Kingdom of Prussia — , the German Empire — , the Weimar Republic — , and the Third Reich — Following German reunification in , Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany.
Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media and science. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Its Zoological Garden is the most visited zoo in Europe and one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex , Berlin is an increasingly popular location for international film productions.
Berlin has numerous museums, galleries, libraries, orchestras and sporting events. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Elbe , that once constituted, together with the River Saxon or Thuringian Saale from their confluence at Barby onwards , the eastern border of the Frankish Realm.
While the Frankish Realm was primarily inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons , the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes.
This is why most of the cities and villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic -derived names Germania Slavica. Typical Germanized place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow , -itz , -vitz , -witz , -itzsch and -in , prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch. It is therefore a canting arm. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are remnants of a house foundation dated to , found in excavations in Berlin Mitte,  and a wooden beam dated from approximately In , Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg , which he ruled until The protests of the town citizens against the building culminated in , in the "Berlin Indignation" "Berliner Unwille".
After the royal palace was finished in , it gradually came into use. In , the electors and the city officially became Lutheran. The Thirty Years' War between and devastated Berlin.
One third of its houses were damaged or destroyed, and the city lost half of its population. By , approximately 30 percent of Berlin's residents were French, because of the Huguenot immigration.
Since , the Margraviate of Brandenburg had been in personal union with the Duchy of Prussia. This was a successful attempt to centralise the capital in the very far-flung state, and it was the first time the city began to grow. The Industrial Revolution transformed Berlin during the 19th century; the city's economy and population expanded dramatically, and it became the main railway hub and economic center of Germany.
Additional suburbs soon developed and increased the area and population of Berlin. In , neighboring suburbs including Wedding , Moabit and several others were incorporated into Berlin. In the early 20th century, Berlin had become a fertile ground for the German Expressionist movement.
At the end of the First World War in , a republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building. In , the Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 to km 2 25 to sq mi. The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million.
During the Weimar era , Berlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned center of the Roaring Twenties. The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, technology, arts, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government and industries. Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in In , Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power.
NSDAP rule diminished Berlin's Jewish community from , one-third of all Jews in the country to about 80, as a result of emigration between and After Kristallnacht in , thousands of the city's Jews were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Starting in early , many were shipped to death camps , such as Auschwitz. The Allies dropped 67, tons of bombs on the city, destroying 6, acres of the built up area. Around , civilians were killed. The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided.
All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. However, in , when the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory.
The Berlin airlift , conducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June to May West Berlin officially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Republic of Germany despite West Berlin's geographic isolation. The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move the western powers did not recognize.
East Berlin included most of the city's historic center. The West German government established itself in Bonn. John F. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany was prohibited by the government of East Germany. In , with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished.
Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the wall. On 3 October , the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin again became a reunified city. City-wide elections in December resulted in the first "all Berlin" mayor being elected to take office in January , with the separate offices of mayors in East and West Berlin expiring by that time, and Eberhard Diepgen a former mayor of West Berlin became the first elected mayor of a reunited Berlin.
On 20 June , the Bundestag German Parliament voted to move the seat of the German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in Berlin's administrative reform merged several boroughs, reducing their number from 23 to In a terrorist attack linked to ISIL , a truck was deliberately driven into a Christmas market next to the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church , leaving 12 people dead and 56 others injured.
Berlin Brandenburg Airport BER opened in , nine years later than planned, with Terminal 1 coming into service at the end of October, and flights to and from Tegel Airport ending in November. Berlin is in northeastern Germany , in an area of low-lying marshy woodlands with a mainly flat topography , part of the vast Northern European Plain which stretches all the way from northern France to western Russia. The Berliner Urstromtal an ice age glacial valley , between the low Barnim Plateau to the north and the Teltow plateau to the south, was formed by meltwater flowing from ice sheets at the end of the last Weichselian glaciation.
The Spree follows this valley now. In Spandau, a borough in the west of Berlin, the Spree empties into the river Havel , which flows from north to south through western Berlin. Substantial parts of present-day Berlin extend onto the low plateaus on both sides of the Spree Valley.
The borough of Spandau lies partly within the Berlin Glacial Valley and partly on the Nauen Plain, which stretches to the west of Berlin. Since , the Arkenberge hills in Pankow at meters ft elevation, have been the highest point in Berlin. Through the disposal of construction debris they surpassed Teufelsberg Due to its transitional climate zones, frosts are common in winter and there are larger temperature differences between seasons than typical for many oceanic climates.
Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild. Berlin's built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat stored by the city's buildings and pavement. Snowfall mainly occurs from December through March. Berlin's history has left the city with a polycentric organization and a highly eclectic array of architecture and buildings. The city's appearance today has been predominantly shaped by the key role it played in Germany's history during the 20th century.
All of the national governments based in Berlin — the Kingdom of Prussia, the 2nd German Empire of , the Weimar Republic, Nazi Germany, East Germany, as well as the reunified Germany — initiated ambitious reconstruction programs, with each adding its own distinctive style to the city's architecture.
Berlin was devastated by air raids , fires and street battles during the Second World War, and many of the buildings that had survived in both East and West, were demolished during the postwar period. Much of this demolition was initiated by municipal architecture programs to build new business or residential districts and the main arteries.
A number of new buildings have been inspired by their historical predecessors or the general classical style of Berlin, such as Hotel Adlon. Clusters of towers rise at various locations: Potsdamer Platz , the City West , and Alexanderplatz , the latter two delineating the former centers of East and West Berlin, with the first representing a new Berlin of the 21st century, risen from the wastes of no-man's land of the Berlin Wall.
Berlin has three of the top 40 tallest buildings in Germany. Over one-third of the city area consists of green space, woodlands and water. It covers an area of hectares and stretches from Bahnhof Zoo in the City West to the Brandenburg Gate in the east.
Built in , it is visible throughout most of the central districts of Berlin. The city can be viewed from its meter-high ft observation floor. Starting here the Karl-Marx-Allee heads east, an avenue lined by monumental residential buildings, designed in the Socialist Classicism style. Adjacent to this area is the Rotes Rathaus City Hall , with its distinctive red-brick architecture.
In front of it is the Neptunbrunnen , a fountain featuring a mythological group of Tritons , personifications of the four main Prussian rivers and Neptune on top of it. The Brandenburg Gate is an iconic landmark of Berlin and Germany; it stands as a symbol of eventful European history and of unity and peace.
The Reichstag building is the traditional seat of the German Parliament. It was remodeled by British architect Norman Foster in the s and features a glass dome over the session area, which allows free public access to the parliamentary proceedings and magnificent views of the city. The East Side Gallery is an open-air exhibition of art painted directly on the last existing portions of the Berlin Wall.
It is the largest remaining evidence of the city's historical division. The Gendarmenmarkt is a neoclassical square in Berlin, the name of which derives from the headquarters of the famous Gens d'armes regiment located here in the 18th century. Restoration and construction of a main entrance to all museums, as well as reconstruction of the Stadtschloss continues. Peter's Basilica in Rome. A large crypt houses the remains of some of the earlier Prussian royal family.