John Quincy Adams
Dec 03, · John Quincy Adams () served as the 6th U.S. president, from to He was the son of former president John Adams, a Founding Father. Quincy Adams was outspoken in his opposition to. Dec 02, · Jefferson clearly defeated John Adams in the fall of , but he tied with his running mate Aaron Burr at 73 votes each in the cumbersome and imperfect Electoral College.
Samuel Adams September 27 [ O. September 16] — October 2, was an American statesman, political philosopherand one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was a politician in colonial Massachusettsa leader of the movement that became the American Revolutionand one of the architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States. Adams was born in Bostonbrought up in a religious and politically active family. A graduate of Harvard Collegehe was an unsuccessful businessman and tax collector before concentrating on politics.
He was an influential official of the Massachusetts House of Representatives and the Boston Town Meeting in the s, and he became a part of a movement opposed to the British Parliament 's efforts to tax the British American colonies without their consent.
His Massachusetts Circular Letter calling for colonial non-cooperation prompted the occupation of Boston by British soldiers, eventually resulting in the Boston Massacre of Adams and his colleagues devised a committee of correspondence system in to help coordinate resistance to what he saw as the British government's attempts to violate the British Constitution at the expense of the colonies, which linked like-minded Patriots throughout the Thirteen Colonies.
Continued resistance to British policy resulted in the Boston Tea Party and the coming of the American Revolution. Parliament passed the Coercive Acts inat which time Adams attended the Continental Congress in Philadelphia which was convened to coordinate a colonial response. He helped guide Congress towards issuing the Continental Association in and the Declaration of Independence inand he helped draft the Articles of Confederation and the Massachusetts Constitution. Adams returned to Massachusetts after the American Revolution, where he served in the state senate and was eventually elected governor.
Samuel Adams later became a controversial figure in American history. Accounts written in the 19th century praised him as someone who had been steering his fellow colonists towards independence long before the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. This view gave way to negative assessments of Adams in the first half of the 20th century, in which he was portrayed as a master of propaganda who how to check trunk port in cisco switch mob violence to achieve his goals.
Both of these interpretations have been challenged by some modern scholars, who argue that these traditional depictions of Adams are myths contradicted by the historical record. The family lived on Purchase Street in Boston. Samuel Adams, Sr. A New England town meeting is a form of local government with elected officials, and not just a gathering of citizens; according to historian William Fowlerit was "the most democratic institution in the British empire". His parents hoped that his schooling would prepare him for the ministry, but Adams gradually shifted his interest to politics.
In his thesis, he argued that it was "lawful to resist the Supreme Magistrate, if the Commonwealth cannot otherwise be preserved", which indicated that his political views, like his father's, were oriented towards colonial rights.
Adams's life was greatly affected by his father's involvement in a banking controversy. InMassachusetts was facing a serious currency shortage, and Deacon Adams and the Boston Caucus created a "land bank" which issued paper money to borrowers who mortgaged their land as security.
Opposition to the land bank came from the more aristocratic "court party", who were supporters of the royal governor and controlled the Governor's Councilthe upper chamber of the General Court. Lawsuits over the bank persisted for years, even after Deacon Adams's death, and the younger Samuel Adams often had to defend the family estate from seizure by the government.
After leaving Harvard inAdams was unsure about his future. He considered becoming a lawyer but instead decided to go into business. He worked at Thomas Cushing's counting housebut the job only lasted a few months because Cushing felt that Adams was too preoccupied with politics to become a good merchant. Adams always remained, in the words of historian Pauline Maier"a man utterly uninterested in either making or possessing money". After Adams had lost his money, his father made him a partner in the family's malthousewhich was next to the family home on Purchase Street.
Several generations of Adamses were maltsters, who produced the malt necessary for brewing beer. In JanuaryAdams and some friends were inflamed by British impressment and launched The Independent Advertisera weekly newspaper that printed many political essays written by Adams. When Deacon Adams died inAdams was given the responsibility of managing the family's affairs. Like his father, Adams embarked on a political career with the support of the Boston Caucus.
He was elected to his first political office inserving as one of the clerks of the Boston market. Inthe Boston Town Meeting elected him to the post of tax collector, which provided a small income. The town meeting was on the verge of bankruptcy, and Adams was compelled to file suit against delinquent taxpayers, but many taxes went uncollected. Adams's friends paid off some of the deficit, and the town meeting wrote off the remainder.
By then, he had emerged as a leader of the popular party, and the embarrassing situation did not lessen his influence. Samuel Adams emerged as an important public figure in Boston soon after the British Empire 's victory in the French and Indian War — The British Parliament found itself deep in debt and looking for new sources of revenue, and they sought to directly tax the colonies of British America for the first time.
The first step in the new program was the Sugar Act ofwhich Adams saw as an infringement of longstanding colonial rights. Colonists were not represented in Parliament, he argued, and therefore they could not be taxed by that body; the colonists were represented by the colonial assemblies, and only they could levy taxes upon them.
As was customary, the town meeting provided the representatives with a set of written instructions, which Adams was selected to write. Adams highlighted what he perceived to be the dangers of taxation without representation :. For if our Trade may be taxed, why not our Lands? It strikes at our British privileges, which as we have never forfeited them, we hold in common with our Fellow Subjects who are Natives of Britain.
If Taxes are laid upon us in any shape without our having a legal Representation where they are laid, are we not reduced from the Character of free Subjects to the miserable State of tributary Slaves?
Alexander, "it became the first political body in America to go on record stating Parliament could not constitutionally tax the colonists. The directives also contained the first official recommendation that the colonies present a unified defense of their rights. InParliament passed the Stamp Act which required colonists to pay a new tax on most printed materials. He supported calls for a boycott of British goods to put pressure on Parliament to repeal the tax.
Adams was friendly with the Loyal Nine but was not a member. On August 26, lieutenant governor Thomas Hutchinson's home was destroyed by an angry crowd. Officials such as Governor Francis Bernard believed that common people acted only under the direction of agitators and blamed the violence on Adams. Miller wrote in in what became the standard biography of Adams  that Adams "controlled" Boston with his "trained mob".
In SeptemberAdams was once again appointed by the Boston Town Meeting to write the instructions for Boston's delegation to the Massachusetts House of Representatives. As it turned out, he wrote his own instructions; on September 27, the town meeting selected him to replace the recently deceased Oxenbridge Thacher as one of Boston's four representatives in the assembly. The Stamp Act was scheduled to go into effect on November 1,but it was not enforced because protestors throughout the colonies had compelled stamp distributors to resign.
There was celebration throughout the city, and Adams made a public statement of thanks to British merchants for helping their cause. The Massachusetts popular party gained ground in the May elections. Adams was re-elected to the House and selected as its clerk, in which position he was responsible for official House papers. In the coming years, Adams used his position as clerk to great effect in promoting his political message. Hancock was a wealthy merchant—perhaps the richest man in Massachusetts—but a relative newcomer to politics.
After the repeal of the Stamp Act, Parliament took a different approach to raising revenue, passing the Townshend Acts in which established new duties on various goods imported into the colonies. These duties were relatively low because the British ministry wanted what are the dangers of substance abuse establish the precedent that Parliament had the right to impose tariffs on the colonies before raising them.
To enforce compliance with the new laws, the Townshend Acts created a customs agency known as the American Board of Custom Commissioners, which was headquartered in Boston. Resistance to the Townshend Acts grew slowly.
The General Court was not in session when news of the acts reached Boston in October Adams therefore used the Boston Town Meeting to organize an economic boycott, eiffel tower how to get there called for other towns to do the same.
Dickinson's argument that the new taxes were unconstitutional had been made before by Adams, but never to such a wide audience. British colonial secretary Lord Hillsboroughhoping to prevent a repeat of the Stamp Act Congress, instructed the colonial governors in America to dissolve the assemblies if they responded to the Massachusetts Circular Letter.
Bernard responded by dissolving the legislature. The commissioners what causes pain in your right shoulder blade the Customs Board found that they were unable to enforce trade regulations in Boston, so they requested military assistance.
The situation exploded on June 10, when customs officials seized Libertya sloop owned by John Hancock—a leading critic of the Customs Board—for alleged customs violations. Sailors and marines came ashore from Romney to tow away Libertyand a riot broke out. Things calmed down in the following days, but fearful customs officials packed up their families and fled for protection to Romney and eventually to Castle Williaman island fort in the harbor. Governor Bernard wrote to London in response to the Liberty incident and the struggle over the Circular Letter, informing his superiors that troops were needed in Boston to restore order.
The convention issued a letter which insisted that Boston was not a lawless town, using language more moderate than what Adams desired, and that the impending military occupation violated Bostonians' natural, constitutional, and charter rights. According to some accounts, the occupation of Boston was a turning point for Adams, after which he gave up hope of reconciliation and secretly began to work towards American independence.
Adams wrote numerous letters and essays in opposition to the occupation, which he considered a violation of the Bill of Rights. It depicted a Boston besieged by unruly British soldiers who assaulted men and raped women with regularity and impunity, drawing upon the traditional Anglo-American distrust of standing armies garrisoned among civilians. Adams continued to work on getting the troops withdrawn and keeping the how to stop cocker spaniel chewing going until the Townshend duties were repealed.
Two regiments were removed from Boston inbut the other two remained. According to the "propagandist interpretation"       of Adams popularized by historian John Miller, Adams deliberately provoked the incident to promote his secret agenda of American independence. After the Boston Massacre, Adams and other town leaders met with Bernard's successor Governor Thomas Hutchinson and with Colonel William Dalrymplethe army commander, to demand the withdrawal of the troops.
After the Boston Massacre, politics in Massachusetts entered what is sometimes known as the "quiet period". Adams urged colonists to keep up the boycott of British goods, arguing that paying even one small tax allowed Parliament to establish the precedent of taxing the colonies, but the boycott faltered.
A struggle over the power of the purse brought Adams back into the political limelight. Traditionally, the Massachusetts House of Representatives paid the salaries of the governor, lieutenant governor, and superior court judges. From the Whig perspective, this arrangement was an important check on executive powerkeeping royally appointed officials accountable to democratically elected representatives.
Governor Hutchinson became concerned that the committees of correspondence were growing into an independence movement, so he convened the General Court in January The quiet period in Massachusetts was over.
Adams was easily re-elected to the Massachusetts House in Mayand was also elected as moderator of the Boston Town Meeting. In one letter, Hutchinson recommended to London that there should be "an abridgement of what are called English liberties" in Massachusetts. Hutchinson denied that this is what he meant, but his career was effectively over in Massachusetts, and the House sent a petition asking the king to recall him.
Adams took a leading role in the events that led up to the famous Boston Tea Party of December 16,although the precise nature of his involvement has been disputed.
Britons could buy smuggled What is a pronoun and antecedent tea more cheaply than the East India Company's tea because of the heavy taxes imposed on tea imported into Great Britain, and so the company amassed a huge surplus of tea that it could not sell. The Tea Act permitted the East India Company to export tea directly to the colonies for the first time, bypassing most of the merchants who had previously acted as middlemen.
John Quincy Adams, Son of John Adams
Gonzaga College High School is a private Catholic college-preparatory high school for boys in Washington, D.C. Founded by the Jesuits in as the Washington Seminary, Gonzaga is named in honor of St. Aloysius Gonzaga, an Italian saint from the 16th century. Gonzaga is the oldest boys' high school in the District of Columbia and also the oldest college in the original federal city of Washington.
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