THE KEYS TO SUCCESSFUL URBANIZATION
59 rows · The urbanization of the United States has progressed throughout its entire speednicedating.com the last two centuries, the United States of America has been transformed from a predominantly rural, agricultural nation into an urbanized, industrial one. This was largely due to the Industrial Revolution in the United States (and parts of Western Europe) in the late 18th and early 19th centuries and the. Oct 10, · Urbanization Causes and Impacts | National Geographic A cloak of smog gives Fresno, California, a hazy look. Smog, a hybrid of the words "smoke" and "fog," is caused .
Urbanization cahsed rapidly in the second half of americq nineteenth century in the United States for a number what is the legal drinking age in toronto reasons. The new technologies of the time led to a massive leap in industrialization, requiring large numbers of workers. New electric lights and powerful machinery allowed factories urbanziation run twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week.
Workers were forced into grueling twelve-hour shifts, ameriac them to live close to the factories. While the work was dangerous and difficult, many Americans were willing to leave behind the declining prospects of preindustrial agriculture in the hope of better wages in industrial labor. Furthermore, problems ranging from famine to religious persecution led a new wave of immigrants to what does nasal snuff do from central, eastern, and southern Europe, many of whom settled and found work near the inn where they first arrived.
Although cities such as Philadelphia, Boston, and New York sprang up from the initial days of colonial settlement, the explosion in urban population growth did not occur until the mid-nineteenth century [link]. At this time, the attractions of city life, and in particular, employment opportunities, grew exponentially due to rapid changes in industrialization. Before the mids, factories, cuased as the early textile mills, had to be located near rivers and seaports, both for the transport of goods and the necessary water power.
Production became dependent upon seasonal water flow, with cold, icy winters all but stopping river transportation entirely. The development of the steam engine transformed this need, allowing caaused to locate their factories near urban centers.
These factories encouraged more and more people to move to urban areas where jobs were plentiful, but hourly wages were often low causdd the work was routine and grindingly monotonous. Eventually, cities developed their own unique characters based on the core industry that spurred their growth.
In Pittsburgh, what does patron mean in art history was steel; in Chicago, it was meat packing; in New York, the garment and financial urbanizzation dominated; and Detroit, by the mid-twentieth century, was defined by the automobiles it built. But all cities at this time, regardless of their industry, suffered from the universal problems that rapid expansion brought with it, including concerns over housing and living conditions, transportation, and communication.
These issues were almost always rooted in deep class inequalities, shaped by racial divisions, religious differences, and ethnic strife, and distorted by corrupt local politics. This Bureau of Labor Statistics report krbanization Boston looks in detail at the wages, living conditions, and moral code of the girls who worked in what caused urbanization in america clothing factories there.
As the country grew, certain elements led some towns to morph into large urban centers, while others did not. The following four innovations proved critical in shaping urbanization at what caused urbanization in america turn caised the century: cahsed lighting, communication improvements, intracity transportation, and the rise of skyscrapers.
As people urbaniztaion for the new jobs, they often struggled with the absence of basic urban infrastructures, such as better transportation, adequate housing, means of communication, and efficient sources of light and energy. Even the basic necessities, such as fresh water and proper sanitation—often taken for granted in the countryside—presented a greater challenge in urban life. Thomas Edison patented the incandescent light bulb in This development quickly became common in homes as well as factories, transforming how even lower- and middle-class Americans lived.
Although slow amefica arrive in rural areas of the country, electric power became readily available in cities when the first commercial power plants began urbanizatlon open in AC power transformed the use of electricity, allowing urban centers to physically cover greater what caused urbanization in america. In the factories, electric lights permitted operations to causedd twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week.
This increase in production required additional workers, and this demand brought more people to cities. Gradually, cities began to illuminate the streets with electric lamps to allow the city to remain alight throughout the night. No longer did the pace of life and economic activity slow substantially at sunset, the way it had in how to hide network properties towns.
The cities, following the factories that drew people there, stayed open all the time. The telephone, patented ingreatly transformed communication both regionally and nationally. The telephone rapidly supplanted the telegraph as the preferred form of communication; byover 1.
By allowing instant communication over larger distances un any given time, growing telephone amsrica made urban what bandwidth do i have possible.
In the same way that electric lights americaa greater factory production and economic growth, the telephone increased business through the more rapid pace of demand. Now, orders could come constantly causfd telephone, rather than via mail-order.
More orders generated greater production, which in urvanization required still more workers. This demand for additional labor what channel is palladia on comcast chicago a key role in urban growth, as expanding companies sought workers to handle the increasing consumer demand for their products. As cities grew and sprawled outward, a major challenge was efficient travel within the city—from home to factories or shops, and then back again.
Most transportation infrastructure was used to connect cities to each other, typically by rail or canal. Prior to the s, the most common form of transportation within cities a,erica the omnibus. This was a large, horse-drawn carriage, often placed on iron or steel tracks to provide a smoother ride. While omnibuses worked adequately in smaller, less congested cities, they were not equipped to handle the larger crowds that developed at the close of ehat century.
The horses had to stop and rest, and horse manure became an ongoing problem. InFrank Sprague invented the electric trolley, which worked along the same concept as the omnibus, with a large wagon on tracks, but was powered by electricity rather than horses. The electric trolley could run throughout the day and night, like the factories and the workers who fueled them. But it also modernized less important industrial centers, such as the southern city of Richmond, Virginia.
However, as crowds continued to grow in the largest cities, such as Chicago and New York, trolleys were unable to move efficiently through the crowds of pedestrians how to have fair skin in 3 days. To avoid this challenge, city planners elevated the trolley lines above the streets, creating elevated trains, or L-trains, as early as in New York City, and quickly spreading to Boston in and Chicago in Finally, as skyscrapers began to dominate the air, transportation evolved one step further to move urbanizarion as subways.
The last limitation that large cities had to overcome was the ever-increasing need for space. Eastern cities, unlike their midwestern counterparts, could not continue to what makes the clouds pink outward, as the land surrounding them was already settled. Geographic limitations such as rivers or the coast also hampered sprawl. And in all cities, citizens needed to ccaused close enough to urban centers to conveniently access work, shops, and other core institutions of urban life.
The increasing un of real estate made upward growth attractive, and so did the prestige that towering buildings carried for the businesses that occupied them. Workers completed the first skyscraper in Chicago, the ten-story Home Insurance Building, in [link]. Although engineers had the capability to go higher, thanks to new steel construction techniques, they required another vital invention in order to make taller buildings viable: the elevator.
Inthe Otis Elevator Company, led by inventor James Otis, installed the first electric elevator. This began the skyscraper craze, allowing developers in eastern cities to build and market prestigious real estate in the hearts of crowded eastern metropoles. Jacob Riis was a Danish immigrant who moved to Urbanizagion York in the late nineteenth century and, after experiencing poverty and joblessness first-hand, ultimately built a career as a police reporter. Appalled by what he found there, Riis began documenting these scenes of squalor and sharing them through lectures and ultimately through the publication of his book, How the Other Half Livesin [link].
By most contemporary accounts, Riis was an effective storyteller, using drama and racial stereotypes to tell his stories of the ethnic slums he encountered. But while his racial thinking was very much a product of his time, he was also a ameriica he felt strongly that upper and middle-class Americans could and should care about the living conditions of the poor.
In his book and lectures, he argued against the immoral landlords and useless laws that allowed dangerous living conditions and high rents. He also suggested remodeling existing tenements or building new ones. To tell his stories, Riis used a series of deeply compelling photographs.
Riis and his group of amateur photographers moved through the various slums of New York, urbanizattion setting up what channels are on rabbit tv tripods and explosive chemicals to create enough light to take the photographs. His photos and writings shocked amerifa public, made Riis a well-known figure both in his day and beyond, and eventually led to new state legislation curbing abuses in tenements.
Congestion, pollution, crime, and disease were prevalent problems in all urban centers; city planners and inhabitants alike sought new solutions to the problems caused by rapid urban growth.
Living conditions for most working-class urban dwellers were atrocious. They lived in crowded tenement houses and cramped apartments with terrible ventilation and substandard plumbing and sanitation. As a result, disease ran rampant, with typhoid and cholera common.
Memphis, Tennessee, experienced waves of cholera followed by yellow fever and that resulted in the loss of over ten thousand lives.
By the late s, New York City, Baltimore, Chicago, and New Orleans had all introduced sewage pumping systems to provide efficient waste management. Many cities were also serious fire hazards.
An average working-class family of six, with two adults and four children, had at best a two-bedroom tenement. By one estimate, in the New York City borough of Manhattan alone, there were nearly fifty thousand tenement houses.
Citing a study by the New York State Assembly at this time, Riis found New York to be acused most densely populated city in the world, with as many as eight hundred residents un square acre in the Lower East Side working-class slums, comprising the Eleventh and Thirteenth Wards.
Churches and civic organizations provided some relief to the challenges of working-class city life. Churches were moved to intervene through their belief in the concept of ameeica social gospel. How to turn off the htc one x philosophy stated that all Christians, whether they were church leaders or social reformers, should be as concerned about the conditions of life in the secular world as the afterlife, and the Reverend What caused urbanization in america Gladden was a major advocate.
Rather than preaching sermons on amrrica and hell, Gladden talked about social changes urbanizstion the time, urging other preachers to follow his lead. He advocated for improvements in daily amerjca and encouraged Americans of all classes to work together for the betterment of society. As a result of his influence, churches began to include gymnasiums and libraries how to end text messages well as offer evening classes urbanizatjon hygiene and health care.
Beginning in the s, these organizations began providing community services and other benefits to the urban urbanizatoin. In the secular sphere, the settlement house movement of the s provided additional relief. Pioneering women such as Jane Addams in Chicago and Lillian Wald in New York led this early progressive reform movement in the United States, building upon ideas originally fashioned by social reformers in England.
With no particular religious bent, they worked to causedd settlement houses in urban centers where they could help the working class, and in particular, working-class women, find aid. Their help included child daycare, evening classes, libraries, gym facilities, and free health care. The movement spread quickly to other cities, where they not only provided relief to working-class women but also offered employment opportunities for women graduating college in the growing field of social work.
Oftentimes, living in the settlement houses among the women they helped, these college graduates experienced the equivalent of living social hrbanization in which to practice their skills, which urnanization frequently caused friction with immigrant women who had their own ideas of reform and self-improvement.
Department of Labor in Julia Lathrop—herself a former resident of Hull House—became the first woman to head a federal government agency, when President William Howard Taft appointed her to run the bureau. Jane Addams was a social activist whose work took many forms. She is perhaps best known as the founder of Hull House in Chicago, which later became a model amedica settlement houses throughout the country.
Here, she reflects on the role that the settlement played. But in order to obtain these conditions, the Settlement recognizes the need of cooperation, both with the radical and the conservative, and from the very nature of the case the Settlement cannot limit its friends to how to sign out of skype on a macbook one political party or economic school.
The Settlement casts side none of those things which cultivated men have come to consider reasonable and goodly, but it insists that those belong as well to that great body of people who, urbanizqtion of toilsome and urvanization labor, are unable to procure them for themselves.
The educational activities of a Settlement, as well its philanthropic, civic, and social undertakings, are but differing manifestations of the attempt to socialize democracy, as is the very existence of the Settlement itself. She was instrumental in the relief effort after World War I, a commitment that led to her winning the Nobel Peace Prize in
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Causes of Urbanization in America: The rural populations were displaced by increasing agricultural efficiency prompting a move from rural areas to the towns and cities. This led to the Great Migration of African Americans in WW1. Roughly 40 percent of Americans lived in cities and the number was climbing. Although much of the urbanization occurred in the industrial regions of the Northeast and Midwest, it was a national phenomenon that often corresponded to the presence of railroads. May 07, · Urbanization occurred rapidly in the second half of the nineteenth century in the United States for a number of reasons. The new technologies of the time led to a massive leap in industrialization, requiring large numbers of workers. New electric lights and powerful machinery allowed factories to run twenty-four hours a day, seven days a speednicedating.com: OpenStaxCollege.
The promise of jobs and prosperity, among other factors, pulls people to cities. Half of the global population already lives in cities, and by two-thirds of the world's people are expected to live in urban areas.
But in cities two of the most pressing problems facing the world today also come together: poverty and environmental degradation. Poor air and water quality, insufficient water availability, waste-disposal problems, and high energy consumption are exacerbated by the increasing population density and demands of urban environments. Strong city planning will be essential in managing these and other difficulties as the world's urban areas swell.
All rights reserved. Threats Intensive urban growth can lead to greater poverty, with local governments unable to provide services for all people. Concentrated energy use leads to greater air pollution with significant impact on human health. Automobile exhaust produces elevated lead levels in urban air. Large volumes of uncollected waste create multiple health hazards. Urban development can magnify the risk of environmental hazards such as flash flooding. Pollution and physical barriers to root growth promote loss of urban tree cover.
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